Questions and Answers DocumentThe Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) compiled in this document have been submitted through partners and communities across the earthquake affected areas. Additional questions for inclusion can be shared via firstname.lastname@example.org or through the relevant HRRP District Coordination Team. The responses provided have been gathered from relevant Government of Nepal (GoN) bodies, and have been formally and informally sourced. The information provided is not official, but is correct at time of publication and will be regularly updated as required. The HRRP ‘Briefing P ack’ compiles many of the source documents referred to in the FAQs.
N.B. Households do not have to rebuild using these designs, and are free to develop their own house design following the principles of the National Building Code (NBC).a
POs wishing to have house designs approved should submit the designs to MoUD CL-PIU, email@example.com.
Confined masonry is a technology that, if built correctly, performs very well in earthquakes. It uses the same basic materials of concrete and brick / blocks that are found in unreinforced masonry construction and in reinforced concrete frame construction with masonry infills, but with a different construction sequence and system. In confined masonry construction, the masonry walls carry the seismic loads and the concrete is used to confine the walls. This is in contrast to RC frame buildings with infill walls where the concrete frames need to carry the load. Those buildings are much more complex to design and build, and often perform very poorly in earthquakes. The bottom line is that well-constructed confined masonry buildings have been observed to incur little or no damage in moderate to even severe earthquakes.
From a practical point of view it is not possible to use stone in confined masonry given the challenge is dressing stone so that each piece is the same size and shape.
No, it cannot. In confined masonry construction, the masonry walls carry the seismic loads and the concrete is used to confine the walls.
Dowel bars may be used as an alternative to toothing.
This depends on various conditions, but for structures of maximum 2 storeys, confined masonry can have the same performance as RCC and is economically sound.
In confined masonry construction, the masonry walls carry the seismic loads and the concrete is used to confine the walls.
- Are GoN approved house designs available?
- If Partner Organisations (POs) prepare additional housing designs, how can these be approved?
- Will households be able to rebuild with construction materials of their choice?
- Can households use bamboo, as a cheap alternative to timber, for their roof and floors?
- What is confined masonry and how is it different from RCC frame structures?
- Can stone be used in confined masonry?
- Can a load bearing structure with vertical reinforcement be considered as confined masonry?
- Toothing in confined masonry can be challenging as masons/contractors are reluctant to include such detailing during construction. Is there any way to construct confined masonry buildings without toothing?
- Which construction typology is better, RCC or confined masonry?
- What is the load carrying mechanism in confined masonry?